The Mikrokopter 2.1 Flight controller
Molex-Connector to connect to power distribution board
1 - Molex ConnectorConnections from top to bottom:
1 - Ground (GND FC and Buzzer)
2 - + Buzzer
3 - I2C Bus (D)
4 - I2C Bus (C)
5 - +12V
1 - 10pin connector for MK-USB or NaviCtrl connection
13 - Connection for PPM receiver (GN-brown, +5V-red, PPM-orange)
14 - Ground (GND) connection for the Flight Controller
15 - Positive (+) connection for the Flight Controller (if a power switch is being used)
16 - Positive (+) connection for the Flight Controller (without a power switch)
The FCV2.1 can be connected to the powerboard via the molex cable.
When using the Molexkabel between FlightCtrl and powerboard, you don't have to solder the I2C bus, the buzzer and the power cable to the FlightCtrl.
When mounting the FlightCtrl, the printed arrow shows to the rigger No.1 (red rigger). The PCB populated side facing up.
My favorite Picture you should put this on your desktop
Upper Row (switchable outputs)
Pin1: 100mA switchable output with NON Open Collector for LED's, Programmable with MK Koptertool with J16.
Pin3: +5 Volt
Pin5: 100mA switchable output with NON Open Collector for LED's, Programmable with MK Koptertool with J17.
Lower row: Nick-Servo Output
Pin2: Servo 1 output (for Nick-Servo camera stabilization)(adjustable via MK Koptertool)
Attention: the servo outputs get activated after the calibration of the gyros. Push the throttle lever in the upper left corner until you hear the buzzer and the green LED turns off.
Upper row: Servo 3
Pin1: Servo 3 output
Lower Row: Roll-Servo Output
Pin2: Servo 2 Output (Setting in Koptertool)
Upper row: Servo 5
Pin1: Servo 5 output
Lower Row: Servo 4
Pin2: Servo 4 output
Pin4: +5VPin6: GND
PPM - sum signal
Click to enlarge the image
Spektrum Satellite Receiver
The 3,3V power connection for the satellite receiver is on the bottom side of the Flight Controller.
Jeti Satellite Receiver
The external diode is already integrated into the FC2.1 circuit and therefore will not have to get soldered.
Also see: JetiDuplex
Since Software version V0.86
The HoTT receiver will also connected on the PPM and RX pads of the FlightCtrl. To send the telemetry a solder bridge on "JET" is needed.
Futaba S.Bus Receiver
Since Software version V0.88
The NaviCtrl V2.0 with integrated compass is the follow of NaviCtrl V1.1 and expands with the MKGPS the ability of the MikroKopter.
Throughout the use of those modules you will get a powerful GPS-System.
With this GPS-System you can use the function like PositionHold, ComingHome, CareFree the Waypoint-flight as well as the FollowMe-function.
For the waypoint-flight you can set up to 30 waypoints in the OSD KopterTool.
The waypoint-flight (and that of the FollowMe) is than in a Radius of 250mtr. around the startpoint of the Kopter possible.
Users with a commercial license can also use a bigger range.
(Questions about the license please wrote to: HiSystem)
All other functions (PositionHold, ComingHome, CareFree, etc.) are usable in the full range of the transmitter / receiver.
(The NaviCtrl with the integrated compass could be also used single with the FlightCtrl. But here would be only the function "CareFree" possible.)
The NaviCtrl-PCB has got besides the ARM9-Micro-Controller and the Micro-SD-Card-Socket two additional extension plugs.
The first and the second extension plug is free usable for future developments.
You can use also the NaviCtrl in connection with the MKGPS as a separate FollowMe-Transmitter. This is explained here: FollowMe
NaviCtrl V2.0 - Top-Side
NaviCtrl V2.0 - Bottom-Side
of the MK3Mag compass is now integrated in the NaviCtrl V2.0. You have
to calibrate this integrated compass too (see "Calibration of the
During the initialization you will see the integrated compass modul:
Indicate the magnet values
On the NaviCtrl V2.0 the pin-header to the interfaces of the FlightCtrl, SPI and Debug are already soldered.
Activate the GPS-System and assign channel
To use the NaviCtrl with the compass module MK3Mag and the MKGPS you must activate the function GPS in your settings.
In addition you need to have a channel for the mode control to switch between the functions (Free, PositionHold, ComingHome)
(pre-set is Poti2 => channel6). This channel must be assigned to a 3-way switch at the transmitter.
(How a channel at the transmitter will be assigned to a switch you will find in the appropriate instruction manual of the transmitter.)
Activate CareFree and assign channel
If the function CareFree is used you must assign an additional channel to that function.
This function is set up to "0" = Deactivated by default.
If here an appropriate channel is set you must assign a switch at the transmitter.
(How a channel at the transmitter will be assigned to a switch you will find in the appropriate instruction manual of the transmitter.)
How the function CareFree and the additional activated Teachable CareFree can be used,
you can find here: CareFree
The easiest way to set up/activate the functions is over the menu-point EasySetup.
Here you can activate the GPS and set up the channels to switch for GPS/CareFree.
Pre-set is already POTI2 => channel6 for the function of the GPS. CareFree is in the pre-settings on "0" = OFF.
Settings in EasySetup
On the page EasySetup all important settings are summerized.
All settings made here are automatically transferred to the corresponding sub-sites.
The settings in EasySetup can be made directly in the different sub-sites.
The GPS can be switched ON/OFF in the tab Configuration:
If you use only the NaviCtrl with the compass module (MK3Mag) it can be activated here individually.
An additional function like Fixed alignment can be given. Is that function activated you can yaw the Kopter during the flight
If you release the yaw-stick the Kopter automatically aligns itself into the direction
in which the Kopter was at the start.
In the tab Navi-Ctrl you can switch also the GPS ON- and OFF.
Also, you can set up here the channel to switch the function:
Under the tab Misc you can set up the CareFree control
and the Teachable CareFree:
A total of three modes can be switched with the GPS mode control.
Those functions are:
GPS_MODE_Position Hold (PH)
GPS_MODE_Coming Home (CH)
As described is this function already pre-set on Channel 6 (POTI2). This channel can also be changed as desired.
To use the function a 3-way switch of the transmitter should be set to that channel and also been used.
The Height switch should be switched ON while using this function.
The height switch i.e. can be set to the same channel like the GPS Mode Control.
This saves you not only a channel-switch on the transmitter. As soon as the function PH or CH is switched ON automatically the function to keep the height is switched ON.
For the function of PH/CH a Sat-Fix is mandatory necessary.
If this is not there it can be selected via a switch, but has no function.
You must still manually control the Kopter.
In the function PositionHold (PH) the Kopter remains with the support of the GPS on that position at which the function was activated.
If you switch to the function ComingHome (CH) the MikroKopter returns automatically back to the start point with the support of the GPS.
A switch-back to Free turns the functions off.
If the Kopter circles in PH Mode around the activation point (a small radius is pretty much normal) a new calibration of the compass can help.
Also to determine a better and more accurate position the mount of the GPS-Shield1.1 to the MKGPS helps alot.
Either in the EasySetup (see picture above) or under the tab Navi-Ctrl2 the function Dynamic PositionHold can be activated.
The function of the mode PositionHold (PH) is different if Dynamic PositionHold is enabled or disabled :
The Kopter will be throughout moving the Nick- / Rollstick directly controlled.
The function PositionHold (PH) will be switched off if you move the sticks.
At the new position and after you release the sticks the function PH will be switched on again.
Also here you can fly the Kopter through moves with the Nick- / Rollstick to a new position.
In that way PH will be not disabled/enabled but the nominal values of the GPS-coordinates will be moved.
An more accurate and exact positioning of the Kopter is possible even in windy conditions.
The Kopter will fly a little bit slower to the position, moves more sluggish.
If the NaviCtrl (with Compass/MKGPS) is properly connected the FlightCtrl beeps more often. The beeps tell you as follows:
If the switch for the GPS function will be switched from free to GPS_MODE_PositionHold or GPS_MODE_ComingHome
and there is no Sat-Fix (LED on the MK-GPS is not flashing) it will beep 1 time per second.
The Kopter beeps as long as a minimum number of satellites was found and a Sat-Fix was reached. (See also Paramter "Min Sat").
Exception: The beeping will be more quiet if a Sat-Fix is available but a sufficient number of satellites wasn't found.
This beep takes place even if GPS is disabled.
(If GPS is deactivated set also the value for "GPS Mode Control" to Zero (0).)
- 1x beep *beep* - when changing the GPS-Modes (free - PH - CH)
- 1x beep *beep* - when logging new target-coordinates
On the NaviCtrl you can find 2 LEDs, 1x red and 1x green. The red LED indicates you a failure.
To show you the respective failures the NaviCtrl must be hooked up to the MK-Tool. The failure will be shown there.
The red LED stays on also if the compass is not calibrated! A failure message is displayed as "error6".
Here you need to open the Terminal Window in the KopterTool. If the NaviCtrl is hooked up single over the connector Debug and connected with the MK-USB and a closed jumper on the MK-USB
you should see the following initializing sequence of the NaviCtrl:
TIPPIs the NaviCtrl on the Kopter mounted with the FlightCtrl, the MK3Mag and the MKGPS, those assemblies should be also seen during initializing.
Here the jumper shouldn't be on the MK-USB and the Kopter should be supplied with power over a Lipo or an external power-supply.
Into the NaviCtrl you can place a Micro SD-Card in the size up to 2GB (in FAT16 formatted).
Here you can save the flight-route and other datas of the Kopter in KML-Format and GPS-Format.
The SD-Card will be plugged in as you can find under Connections into the NaviCtrl.
A detected and initialized Micro SD-Card you can see in the initialization of the NaviCtrl.
If you want to read or change the data on the Micro SD-card, it must be removed from the NaviCtrl and plugged into an appropriate card slot on the PC.
On the SD-Card from the NaviCtrl there will be automatically a file generated named Settings.ini with the following content:
KMLLOGGING = 500 (Interval (in ms) the logging of the KML-Datas. Default = 500.)
GPXLOGGING = 1000 (Interval (in ms) the logging of the GPX-Datas. Default = 1000.)
MAX_FLYING_ALT = 0 (Input of the max. flight-altitude. Default = 0. See INFO)
MAX_FLYING_RANGE = 0 (Input of the max. flight-radius. Default = 0. See INFO)
DESCEND_RANGE = 0 (Input of the safety-radius for the max flying range. Default = 0. See INFO)
GPS_SBAS_DGPS_ON = 1 (Switch on/off DGPS receiving. Default = 0.)
MIN_EVENT_TIME = 2 (Adjustable trigger. See: Delay Time)
GPSAUTOCONFIG = 1 (1 = the NC writes its own GPS-Configuration (temporary) into the MKGPS. Default = 1.)
Important settings for license user!
MAX_FLYING_ALT Here you can enter a maximum altitude which is required for i.e. a special license for the commercial use.
If the Kopter reaches that set up altitude mnessage 29 "ERR:Max Altitude" appears over the telemetry display.
If you do not react to this message and you climb further up, 10mtr. above the set up max. altitude the Kopter will switch automatically to the set emergency-throttle/gas Link and sink.
After reaching the regular set up altitude again the Kopter will switch automatically back from emergency-throttle/gas to normal operation.
User without a license get also after reaching the max. altitude the same message but they are able to climb further up.
More informations about this you will find here: Max.Altitude - Example
MAX_FLYING_RANGE Here you can enter a max. flight-radius which is required for the special license and commercial use.
INFO: This value should be smaller as the under "DESCEND_RANGE" entered radius!!!
If the Kopter reaches this radius GPS will be automatically activated. The Kopter will be flown back automatically over the function "ComingHome" into the set up flight-radius.
Here you will see an appropriate message over the telemetry display.
DESCEND_RANGE Here byou can enter a max. flight-radius which is required for the special license and commercial use.
If the Kopter is leaving this radius it will turn automatically with 80% hovering-throttle/gas into a descent flight.
The Kopter should not reach that radius with a small set up "MAX_FLYING_RANGE" under normal circumstances.
For user without a license is the setting "DESCEND_RANGE" with no function.
To change those values you should insert and open the SD-Card directly
in ab appropriate slot on your PC. Here you can do the adjustment with
TIP: License User should activate in the Settings "Miscellaneous (Misc)" the function "SD card missing".
(For your convenient information: In France, i.e., with the beginning of 2012 are those settings now obligation for commercial user and the Kopter MUST come down if it is out of a 150mtr. radius!)
1. If you need to change those datas please do not use Logging-times under 500ms - that can affect the navigation and lead to failures!
2. After an Update of the NaviCtrl please clear the SETTINGS.INI on the SD-Card.
The new Software will set a new file with the needed values.
stored data - folder "LOG"
flight the Kopter will create once a folder "LOG" and save some
informations (for each flight) on the micro-SD-card in a .KML and a .GPX
Value of the WP-Event
Nick- and Roll-Servo-Value
You can take a look on this informations with the programm "GPX-Viewer" or "MK_GPX (Link)
Presentation of the flight data in Google Earth
Google Earth you can display and see the saved flight-datas of the
Kopter. In the actual Google Earth Version (>6.1) you can display the
by loading the .KML or the .GPX-file.
If you open a .KML file with "Google Earth" and see only red stripes, you have to edit the .KML file.
Here in this file you can change the coordinates like you see here:
- Wrong: +7.1234567,+53.1234567, 0.000
- Right: +7.1234567,+53.1234567,0.000
(The flight-route will be also displayed in the height if you set up in the properties of the file the Height to Relativ to ground.)
The practice has shown that the default parameters (settings) are already sufficient for almost all MikroKopter.
Who wants to do a little bit fine-tuning that can be done in the settings. You can do that in the tabs NaviCtrl and NaviCtrl2.
For the data transfer between the Kopter and the PC you can use also a Bluetooth-Module or a Wi232-Module.
The module will be hooked up also to the Debug-Interface of the NaviCtrl. A second module (Bluetooth or Wi232) to receive the datas will be connected to the MK-USB.
Connect the NaviCtrl over the 10- and 6pole connection plug with the FlightCtrl (see MK-Tower)
Connect the MK-USB to the Debug-Interface of the NaviCtrl - DO NOT place the jumper on the MK-USB.
Now switch ON the Kopter.
Start the KopterTool and click in the Terminal Window (Button Firmware Update and Terminal) on Update Software (serial). Then choose the .hex-file.
The Update-sequence starts and should be done after approx. 1-2 minutes. At the end you can see debug-datas in the Terminal.
Further information for the Update (also if an update fails) you can get here: SoftwareUpdate
For updating the software you should always use the MK-USB.
If you use for the data-transfer a Wi232 Module or a Bluetooth Module the update can be faulty!
To flash the bootloader is not necessary and also not possible.
If the processor is defect you can buy a new one with the appropriate bootloader in the Shop.
you use the GPS-System (NaviCtrl + Compass + MKPGS) on your Kopter and
you calibrate the Gyros, you can see for a short time "error 6" + "error
3" in your Telemetry-Display.
This is normal. Because the connection between FlightCtrl and NaviCtrl is briefly interrupted when you calibrate the Gyros .
First see this
The Two Minute Mikrokopter Calibration.
Important: When first operated, the MK3Mag needs to be correctly
calibrated! Otherwise the NaviBoard will show you "Err:6 bad compass
Now it is (since Version FC:0.84) very easy to calibrate the compass with a "clicking sound" .
This method has the advantage that you doesn't have to hold the Kopter "perfect" horizontally.
The Kopter should be calibrated outside, away from magnetic influences!
So please do not calibrate the Kopter directly next to a house, near power poles or metallic / magnetic surfaces.
Also, please take your cell etc. out of your pocket.
The earth's magnetic field is not the same everywhere. That's the
reason why you should calibrate the compass new if you change the place
where you fly.
(e.g. from Germany to USA or from north to south America)
The calibration will be done in several steps:
Example View / Function
On a transmitter in MODE 2 it lokks like in that way:
Pull Nick down 1x
Calibration of the X-Axis (Nick-Axis)
The Kopter with the front
Calibration of the Y-Axis (Roll-Axis)
Rotate the Kopter by 90°
Pull Nick 1x down
Pull Nick 1x down
Calibration of the Z-Axis (Yaw-Axis)
INFO: Here it doesn't matter if the Kopter shows with the X or Y-Axis towards South (North).
Pull Nick 1x down
3. Now that the Kopter "beeped" 2x after a successful calibration that part is done.
If everything is OK the red LED stops lighting after a few seconds on the NaviCtrl V2.0 with integrated compass.
If you use a NaviCtrl V1.1 with MK3Mag the red LED on the MK3Mag lights permanently.
If the calibration fails (compass still reports "invalid compass value"), you can take a look here: MagnetError
If you want to try out those functions you need to have a lot of space and a bunch of open sky.
As discribed above activate the GPS-Function (and CareFree) and assign the switch(es) at the transmitter.
Switch ON the MikroKopter and ensure a radio contact between transmitter and receiver.
- Wait for the first Sat-Fix.
LED at the MKGPS glows as long as there is no Sat-Fix and flashes if a Sat-Fix is available.
If the GPS-Switch on the transmitter is on PH or CH the Kopter beeps as long as required in a tact of a second until the minimum of numbers of satellites has been found.
Beeps are more quiet if the Fix is there but not all 6 satellites were found.
With a confirmation beep the beeping stops as soon as the Sat-Fix is there.
Control of the communication between NaviCtrl and FlightCtrl.
The Kopter beeps in intervals as long as the GPS has no Fix (it beeps only if you are on PH or CH, in the FREE-Mode it will not beep).
if the GPS-Switch at the transmitter will be switched it must beep short each time.
- Wait until the GPS has a Sat-Fix and the LED on the MKGPS flashes.
Switch to GPS_MODE_Free!
- Start engines.
Hover some seconds and (if necessary) fine-adjust the MikroKopter at the transmitter so that the Kopter can hold the position by itself.
- Now bring the Kopter into your desired height and activate the height control.
Switch to the GPS_MODE PositionHold (PH).
Position will be logged (will be acknowleged through a beep).
GPS should work now and the Kopter should hover with a difference of a few meter on its position.
FlightCtrl 1.0 - 2.1
[[| (FC1.0 - FC2.0)]] (ATMEGA644)
[[| (FC2.1)]] (ATMEGA1284)
[[| Navi-Ctrl V0.28f]] NaviCtrl V1.1 + V2.0
[[| MikroKopter tool v1.78]]
Special version for ACT 2, 4GHz S3D receivers
[[| Flight Control to FC2.0 v0.88 - only for ACT S3D 2.4GHz receiver]]
[[| Flight Control from FC2.1 v0.88 - only for ACT S3D 2.4GHz receiver]]
This only works with 2.4 GHz s3d version!
How to update?
Never made an update? A description of how this works can be found here: Software Update
Wegpunkteflug - Programmable speed
It is now possible, the speed will be served in the waypoints, each waypoint set at 0.1 m / sec.
This can either:
- The rate for a fixed value of 1-247 (x 0,1 m / s) can be entered.
- One of the POTI1-8 are entered for the variable control. Then you wear rate than as "poti3" a
- Or the value "0". In this case, automatically the maximum speed is used, ie in principle the old mode.
A description of these settings can be found here: Programmable speed
In previous firmware versions the waypoint was always achieved as soon as the MK came into the capture radius (ie within 10m).
This has been changed in this version. The next waypoint is earlier than the theoretically shortest time attained.
For example, if between two waypoints as a distance of 30m and the MK is the second point is at 3.0 m / sec to fly, the waypoint is reached after 10 seconds. Even if the trap radius would be, for example 30m. This well planned Wegpunktflüge be possible.
Tip: Hit the radius can be chosen with this bigger version than vergangenden firmware versions. A good value, eg 15-25m
Wegpunkteflug - Camera-Nick adjustable per waypoint
Each waypoint now the camera tilt is adjustable. This can be either a number or degree of value "AUTO" is entered.
The example picture shows 1x 6x POI and waypoints with sample entries.
The UAV / camera looking into the following directions:
(P1) = POI 1> Point of Interest
(P2) Waypoint 2 => Kopterblickrichtung = 270 ° / = 60 ° camera tilt down
(P3) Waypoint 3 => Kopterblickrichtung = 270 ° / = 10 ° camera tilt down
(P4) Waypoint 4 => = Kopterblickrichtung to the POI / tilt camera = AUTO = Look at the amount set POI
(P5) Waypoint 5 => Kopterblickrichtung = 270 ° / 20 ° camera tilt down
(P6) Waypoint 6 => Kopterblickrichtung = 270 ° / tilt camera = 90 ° down
A description of these settings can be found here: Camera-Nick
Wegpunkteflug - Waypoints fly without stopping
With a length of stay per Wegpunkteflug can be set waypoint.
But if you want to fly non-stop from waypoint to waypoint, waypoint can be entered as the time a "0".
In order for such an overflight of the waypoints per waypoint triggers a camera yet, in this setting is
event is a waypoint for at least 2 seconds at a time.
Wegpunkteflug - Maximum number of waypoints
With the new version up to 200 waypoints / POI are set on a map.
These different patterns with the waypoint generator can be created.
A description of these settings can be found here: Waypoints
Wegpunkteflug - transfer waypoints
Of the total 200 waypoints / POI can be transferred to a maximum of 32 NaviCtrl for automatic flying off.
If you want to by the person named on the card up to 200 waypoints leave only a certain range (eg WP40-WP60)
only these waypoints can also be transferred to the NaviCtrl.
A description of these settings can be found here: Waypoints transferred
Wegpunkteflug - waypoints Info
For the waypoint, there are two new features.
In the OSD, there is now a separate display that provides information to the waypoint during Wegpunktfluges.
These are: waypoint x of y, the time spent, the amount and speed in the next WP will be served.
A description of these settings can be found here: Waypoints Infos1
The data for each waypoint or POI can not only editor can be checked.
Mouse over each waypoint or POI is performed, the data shows an overlay of each WP / POI.
A description of these settings can be found here: Waypoints Infos2
Wegpunkteflug - POI set and change in POI waypoint
On the map, multiple waypoints and POI are also several set.
If you want to directly place a POI on the map, this can be done by holding down the "CTRL" key and a "right click" on the map.
If an existing waypoint can be converted into a POI it is now possible.
With a "right click" on the waypoint that can be converted to a POI.
Conversely, including a POI can be converted into a waypoint.
A description of these settings can be found here: WP POI set + <-> POI
Wegpunkteflug - Stored waypoints to use as a template
So far, Waypoints / POI just for a certain coordinate saved and loaded.
Now, any storage of waypoints or POIs are also used as a template.
For example, a flight home to be planned and saved.
This schedule can now be stored in any other card at each seat can be used as a template and departed.
A description of these settings can be found here: Template
Wegpunkteflug - Kopters position of the set as a waypoint
Entered manually into the map that you can waypoints is nothing new.
What is news is that the current position of the Kopters can now be set as a waypoint.
If you fly the copter for example, to a certain place during a flight, or has discovered an interesting place that you want to fly again, can the "OSD" of KopterTools the "F9" is pressed. Here, then immediately the current position of the waypoint Kopters as recorded in the card.
This allows you to create multiple waypoints and save them to fly again and again on or off.
A description of these settings can be found here: MK-position Add "F9"
Wegpunkteflug - Looking to take the Kopters
Anyone familiar with the MikroKopter wants to make panoramic shots are probably familiar with the waypoint generator.
A new feature is "take MK-direction" function here.
These turn the copter with the nose in the direction in which you want to take the first photo and "clicks" "Inherit MK-direction" on.
This can be useful if you eg a particular building is not in the interface of two shots would have.
A description of these settings can be found here: MK-direction to take
Wegpunkteflug - Display switching output
If you have a switch output zBmit triggering the camera shows the function can now be examined in the OSD.
Both switching outputs can now be displayed in the OSD Display. If an output is active it will appear here.
Note: The display is about 4 times per second in KopterTool updated. Thus, if the indicator is blinking rapidly, which is represented here may not be important.
An adjustment of the speed in the shift pattern with a value of greater than 30 (0.3 sec) is already well represented.
A description of these settings can be found here: display switching output
At a reception loss, it is now possible to have a "Fail Safe" function automatically carried out by the copter.
This is the UAV is no longer there to where he is currently down, but automatically flies back towards "home position".
If the reception here restored to normal operation is again possible.
If a connect is not possible, the UAV is flying in the direction of "home position" and tried there with a fixed rate of descent to land.
Fitted with a "Coming Home level" is. This can be adjusted manually so that the UAV on its direct way to the "home position" does not fly into obstacles.
Video of the FailSafe
Note: Please do not copy! If you turn off the transmitter, the UAV is not necessarily under control and can crash. The power of the transmitter can take a few seconds.
FailSafe - FailSafe time
In general, a reception failure is caused by a fly out of the reach.
If this is the case, the FailSafe automatically activated and he flies back towards the home position.
Then it usually takes a few seconds until the reception is available again.
The FailSafe time can be infinitely adjusted up to 60 seconds.
FYI: Should be enough this time not because the UAV is much too far away or too high, has landed automatically at the end of this time FailSafe the copter for the set "gas emergency" time with the set "gas emergency".
A description of these functions and settings can be found here: FailSafe time
The famous "Notgas" also has a new feature.
Until now you had to adjust depending on the weight of the individual Kopters the "E-Gas". This is still possible.
As an alternative, but even now, by selecting the new button "Use vario controlfor failsafe altitude", the floating gas percentage value to be entered.
Here, the used automatically by the software determined FC-gas suspension.
A description of these functions and settings can be found here: Notgas
FailSafe - recipients without receiving error display
So that a copter a receiver failure, the recipient must also show that at a reception failure.
If this is not the case, at a reception failure could fly the copter with the last received further settings.
This one, however, can also use the receiver, the signal loss does not explicitly signal, a separate channel for this function are used.
To this end, the receiver must be changed - use the appropriate fail-safe settings of the recipient.
A description of these functions and settings can be found here: reception failure indicator
SD card in NaviCtrl
Do not start without an SD card
In the settings under "Other Business" may be selected if you only plugged into the SD card NaviCtrl may want to start the copter.
This may be important to ensure that the UAV flies with the settings indicated on the notice. Or if you absolutely need a log file.
A description of this setting can be found here: Do not start without an SD card
Data on SD card
Is the NaviCtrl an SD card plugged in, then be recorded during the flight data of Kopters.
From NaviCtrl will also automatically create a file "Settings.ini" is generated. This file settings are saved for the copter.
These settings can be for example the description of the NaviCtrl be found in the wiki.
New additions include:
Here, a maximum altitude can be entered. Fly the copter through the level, there is an error message "29: Err: High Altitude".
A NaviCtrl with Commercial license is automatically switched to another 10m Notgas to return to fall into the allowed range.
This function is independent of the position of the switch for the height.
Here, a maximum flying range can be entered. If the MikroKopter fly out of this area, GPS is activated automatically and the MK tried to fly back.
In addition, an error message appears in ter telemetry display of Jeti + HoTT.
DESCEND_RANGE (use only with the commercial license)
Under this item, a maximum flying range of allowed to be entered. If this is entered here, the entry under "MAX_FLYING_RANGE" be smaller!
If the Mikrokopter for some reason does not stop at the "MAX_FLYING_RANGE" registered border, which is MikroKopter Notgas go automatically into the descent - regardless of whether the treble controls - is on or off.
For your information:
The "DESCEND_RANGE" is mandatory in France. The bill provides that a flight model (which flies commercial operations) should automatically come down to 150m.
All three values are disabled in the default settings, then set to zero. The setting must be read in the SD card in a PC and the entry to be changed.
During the Wegpunktfluges, the UAV can either stay at each waypoint for a set period of stay or depart without the waypoints in sequence.
Thus, the copter even with this continuous flight without dwell time at each waypoint can trigger such as a camera, here is a minimum response time is dictated by 2 seconds.
During this time the set-WP Event is active. Who this time is too short, can enter your own amount of time on this item on the SD card.
This entry can be (if necessary) the GPS config "SBAS" (DGPS) (EGNOS) is turned off.
An explanation of each setting with the default values can be found for each NaviCtrl (under Micro SD card): NaviCtrl
In addition to the previously stored data in the GPX file to be saved now and in addition these values:
- Waypoint which is currently used.
- The current value of the WP-events.
- Pitch and roll servo setpoints.
Since the new Google Earth version, the flight data were saved in the KML file does not display correctly.
The data in the KML file have been adjusted accordingly and are now again properly represented in Google Earth.
This information can be found for each NaviCtrl (with Micro SD card) here, too: NaviCtrl
From this version of Futaba receivers are supported by S.Bus. These are connected via a signal to the inverter FlightCtrl .
A description of the connection and the settings can be found here: Futaba S.Bus
KopterTool - 3D + Sticks
About the 3D button, 3D view of the previously Kopters and Balaceanzeige was opened.
New is an additional indication for the operation of the control stick.
Depending on which button is first opened, the corresponding indicator appears:
Previously, button NaviCtrl button and then click 3D = 3D-display + joystick display
Previously, button FlightCtrl button and then click 3D = 3D + Balance Display Ad
A description of this function can also be found here: 3D
Power output filter
There is now a filter for servo control. Thus, depending on filter setting the quick movements of the MKs only filtered before they go on to the servos.
This value can range from 0 - be adjusted 25th Depending on the input, the servos softer (5-20) or harder (0-4) are activated.
A description of this setting can be found here: Power Filter
Servo 3 +4
Servo 3 and 4 can now be used as a mechanical trigger for cameras. For this purpose, the servo signals to the switching outputs are laid.
A description of this setting can be found here: Power 3.4
New error codes have been entered: "No SD Card", "Flying Range!", "Error Logging SD" and "High Altitude Error".
A description of the "error code" can be found here: error code
The altimeter is calibrated. The old value displayed was displayed for about 10% too high.
Temperature and current display of the BL-Ctrl in the OSD
In the OSD, the current temperature and current, the single BL-Ctrl appear. The temperature is, however, appear only with the BL-Ctrl V2.0.
- Category firmware / FC
Since the firmware version 0.86 the value of the magnetic compass sensor is carefully checked.
These are the different cases:
- Error during calibration
- Error before the start
- Errors in flight
Reason for the error message
- The GPS needs needs the exact compass direction for using GPS. Otherwise, the MK flies simply not in the right direction.
- If the "flying circles" is mentured in conjunction with GPS, the reason is a rwong compass value in almost 99% of the cases.
With a compass error of >30°, the position hold with GPS is simply impossible.
- Changing the MK-Parameters in the settings will not really help regarding this issue
- Typical is that there are directions where GPS works wonderful and the directions 90° to that the GPS works bad - then you might think: "funny, it worked one minute ago"
The NC simply needs needs a compass value with significantly less than 30° error.
You have to use the new method used for calibration. Only then the FC can messure the magnetic field carefully.
- If the minimum - and maximum values do not have a minimum distance, the compass was either not properly calibrated, or the magnetic field is disturbed
- The user then could get "invalid value compass" after calibration
Then you should take a look to this error message:
- Here the MK was not not correct turned around in step 4 (Z-Axis calibration)
- Then the signal between min and max (amplitude) is not big enough. The minimum amplitude is shown in the graph.
- Reason for failure may be also magnetic iron or something magnetic (Buzzers, etc.)
If the calibarion fails
(compass still reports "invalid compass value)
- make sure there is no magnetic material close the compass - like iron
- do the calibration outside
use the new calibration method - the old would not work in the 0.86
- check in the terminal if you have a message like above
The NC (since V0.26e) calulates the earth magnetic field by the GPS coordinate. That is nessecary in regions with <30uT (Brasil and south Africa). There you need a GPS-Fix for compass-calibration.
When you rotate the MK in different directions (like you would do in the new calibration), you should have magnetic curves like this. The min and max-values of the magnet sensor must be bigger than +/-300 6 we had this case in the Betatest - there an iron plate (as heatsink) was the problem. He was not able to calibrate either. After removing the plate - everything was fine
FC installed rotated
- If the FC is installed 45° rotated (X-formation), you must rotate over the arrow of the FC and not over one rigger
- If you would twist ith the FC installed 45 degrees and not turned over the corners of the FC, in calibrating the amplitudes of the X and Y axes are only 71% of the normal value.
- Thus it is possible that the calibration does not go through.
- Furthermore, you get 130% as magnetic value and obtain the magnetic error. You can not even fly properly - even if you ignore the error message.
Error right at the start
If, you get the message even before the start (or in the moment when the motors get started), probably iron or magnetic material are involved. Maybe iron is in the ground or close to the MK.
These are the two values, which are reviewed by the NC:
Magnetic value -> must be between 80 and 120% otherwise you will get the error message.
Inclination shall not deviate more than 10 ° from the theoretical value (depending on geographical location, e.g. 60-70°, link).
- The theoretical value comes when the GPS has a fix
- if the calibration procedure was not correct or done by the old method, you will also get this message
The error message would also prevented from starting.
- Important: Before starting always calirate the gyros (like usual). The MK must not move then.
- The (Inclination error) Error message also comes when the ACC is not calibrated carefully. (MK must stand 100% even when calibrationg the ACC)
- And at the FC1.x versions may also, if the temperature of the gyro drift is too big.
Error in flight
The magnetic value may not differ more than 20% in flight. So it must be between 80% and 120%.
In flight, the incorrect inclination is not reported. Only the 20% deviation of the magnetic field.
- If the error occurs only in the air, then it is probably due to power cables. The MK only reports the Error, but it changes nothing on flight behavior.
- Typical is that there are directions where GPS works wonderful and the directions 90° to that the GPS works bad - then you might think: "funny, it worked one minute ago"
- The Magnet values can be viewed in the anlog values and in the GPX-Log
- Typically is also when the values runs away with the increase of the current.
In the GPX data log on the SD card, these values are recorded:
(Tool for viewing the log data: MK_GPX
resolve the current errors
One should first look at the plus and minus cables from the BL-Ctrl and the LiPo cables
- The Power cables must be parallel - and make no loops of single wires
- If necessary, slightly twist the pairs of wires
- Enlarge the distance between the compass sensor and the cables
- Cause may be the internal structure of the Lipos - then you probably have to enlarge the distance between lipo and Compass
checking magnet values
In the transmitter telemetry (Jeti + HoTT) and in the Koptertool, the values can also be monitored. (since FC0.86c)
Press (SET) in that menu
- Earth field[%] + Compassangle unfiltered[°]
- Measured Inclination[°] + theoretical Inclination[°]
- before starting the Earth field must be around 95-105% and the differences of the inclination below 3° - otherwise you must recalibrate Gyros, ACC and Compass (or there is iron in the ground)
- when hoovering the Earth field must be around 85-115% and the differences of the inclination below 5°
- Maybe you can also attach the MK to the grund, start the motors and apply almost hoover gas. Then you can see the change of the values.
- In strong flights and strong turns the values may have a bigger Error - but when hoovering they must go into that range within 10seconds
Disable the error message
- Under certain circumstances, the MK will not start.
- If the MK must me launched from an iron pedestal (or iron is close), it might be nessecary to disable this message.
- If you fly in buildings, the error message should be disabled. (also don't to use GPS and Compass there)
This only deactivates the error message. If the compass value is wrong because of magnetic disturbances, the MK will not fly good in GPS-Mode - no matter of this setting
How magnetic fields arise and what implications these have for, you can see in these videos: